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    Elizabeth Macquarie, ca. 1819 - watercolour on ivory miniature
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Macquarie, Elizabeth Henrietta (1778 - 1835)

Born
1778
Scotland
Died
11 March 1835
Argyll, Scotland
Occupation
Diarist, Governor's spouse, Traveller and Writer
Alternative Names
  • Campbell, Elizabeth Henrietta

Summary

Elizabeth Macquarie, the wife of New South Wales Governor, Lachlan Macquarie, was an active supporter of her husband's plan to transform the penal settlement at Sydney into a thriving settler colony. She is said to have taken a an interest in the welfare of women convicts and the local Aboriginal people. Her significant role in the establishment of the colony is memorialised in many landmarks in and around Sydney, New South Wales, including Mrs Macquarie's Chair, Campbelltown and the various Elizabeth Streets that pepper the map of Sydney.

She and another prominent Elizabeth (Macarthur) the wife of prominent colonial pastoralist John Macarthur, helped to introduce haymaking to New South Wales.

Details

Elizabeth Macquarie was a 'gently born' Scots woman, without fortune, who grew up on her brother's estate at Appin, Scotland. She me Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, a widower and a distant cousin, in 1804 at the age of 26. They became engaged in 1805.

They married in Devon on 3 November 1807. The bride was 29, the groom 46. In September 1808 their first child, a daughter named Jane Jarvis after the first Mrs Macquarie, was born, but she died in December. In 1809 Macquarie was appointed governor of New South Wales. His wife accompanied him to the colony, where they landed, in Sydney, on December 31, 1809. Their second child, a boy named Lachlan, was born on 28 March 1814.

Elizabeth was a strong willed and determined woman and a devoted wife. She was an intrepid traveller, and her surviving 1809 journal of the voyage to Australia reveals a lively and inquisitive mind. Though dogged by ill health for much of her later life, she accompanied Lachlan on all of his major journeys throughout New South Wales and Tasmania. Recent histories have also indicated that she took an active role in instigating, designing and supervising many of the public works programs that her husband implemented during his time as Governor. She fully supported his efforts to transform a penal settlement into a thriving settler colony.

After her husband resigned as Governor, admidst criticism and controversy over the administration of the colony under his leadership, the couple returned to Britain, to live at Macquarie's estate, Jarvisfield on Mull, Scotland. Lachlan died in 1824.

After his death, she continued to work tirelessly to promote the memory of his achievement, most graphically by making the claim on Macquarie's tombstone inscription that his character and services to society 'rendered him truly deserving the appellation by which he has been distinguised: THE FATHER OF AUSTRALIA.'

Sources used to compile this entry: 'Elizabeth Henrietta Macquarie of Airds (1778-1835)', in Lachlan and Elizabeth Macquarie Archive, Macquarie University, State Library of New South Wales, National Library of Scotland, Historic Houses Trust, National Library of Australia, National Museum of Australia, New South Wales State Records, Macquarie University, 2010, http://www.lib.mq.edu.au/digital/lema/biographies/embiog.html; Barnard, Marjorie, 'Macquarie, Elizabeth Henrietta (1778-1835)', in Australian Dictionary of Biography Online, Australian National University, 2006, http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A020161b.htm; Lachlan & Elizabeth Macquarie Archive, 2009, http://www.library.mq.edu.au/digital/lema; Governor Macquarie: 1810-2010, New South Wales Government, 2010, http://www.macquarie2010.nsw.gov.au/.

Archival resources

Mitchell and Dixson Libraries Manuscripts Collection, State Library of New South Wales

  • Elizabeth Macquarie journal of a voyage from England to Sydney in the ship 'Dromedary', 15 May 1809 - 25 December 1809, 1809, Manuscripts Accession register no. 79909; Macquarie, Elizabeth Henrietta (1778 - 1835); Mitchell and Dixson Libraries Manuscripts Collection, State Library of New South Wales. Details

National Library of Australia Newspaper Microcopy Reading Room

  • Biographical cuttings on Elizabeth Macquarie, wife of the late Governor Macquarie, containing one or more cuttings from newspapers or journals, c. 1900 - c. 2000, BIOG; National Library of Australia Newspaper Microcopy Reading Room. Details

Digital resources

Title
Elizabeth Macquarie, ca. 1819 - watercolour on ivory miniature
Type
Image

Details

Nikki Henningham

Site-wide information and acknowledgements

National Foundation for Australian Women The University of Melbourne, eScholarship Research Centre

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